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Video:Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

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There are three phases of matter and different processes for passing from one to the next. This video will go over the different physical and chemical properties of matter.See Transcript

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Transcript:Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

Today we'll be going over the physical properties of the phases of matter. 

The phases of matter include: solid, liquid, and gas. The different types of matter can be differentiated by the composition and physical properties of each phase. 

Phases of Matter: Solid

Solids have closely bound molecules or atoms. This results in solids having both a specific shape and volume. Solids are often crystalline. A solid is rigid; the molecules may vibrate, but have very little molecular movement.

Phases of Matter: Liquid

The intramolecular forces are weaker in liquids. Each molecule is free to flow around the others, although the molecules are always in contact with one another. This causes liquids to have a specific volume, but its shape will vary based on the shape of its container.   

Phases of Matter: Gas

Due to very weak intramolecular forces, gases have neither a specific shape nor volume. Since there is a lot of space between the molecules in a gas, the molecules are not always in contact with one another, but they will collide. The volume of the gas will always expand out to fill its container, and its shape will also change based on the size and shape  of its container.

Changing Phases of Matter

Matter can undergo physical changes that allow it to move between the phases. Physical changes do not alter the chemical composition of the substance. These changes are: 

  • Freezing: a liquid changes to a solid; molecules slow down and become locked in a structure
  • Melting: a solid changes to a liquid; molecules gain sufficient energy to break free of the crystal structure
  • Vaporization: a liquid changes into a gas; molecules gain enough energy and speed to break free of the liquid surface
  • Condensing: a gas changes into a liquid; molecules slow and coalesce into liquid

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